Captain McBain wrote:
I really don't see how advanced mathematics could be 'trivial' to an android, when Data consistently showed throughout the series an ability to do complex math in his head

Since the mathematical definition of trivial is "simple, or immediately evident," I believe you just proved my point that complex math is indeed trivial (or at the least nearly trivial) to Data.
Captain McBain wrote:
Saying that a human would be more familiar with calculus or science than Data seems pretty farfetched.

More familiar or better at math or science, no absolutely not. Better able to teach it to someone else, absolutely.
Have you ever had a math or science teacher that found the topics simple and talked over the students' heads? I believe Data attempting to teach it to someone else would be quite similar.