hence Kirk accidentally beams two security officers into deep space because he never bothers to check to see whether or not the Enterprise is anywhere near the beamdown site.
More exactly, one of Kirk's redshirts beams down two doomed shirtmates because the ship has been taken over by paranormal kids who have the power to tell people to do stupid things and see false images. Spock seems surprised that the planet Triacus is nowhere to be seen, yes - but there's nothing to say the other guy wasn't seeing the planet right there when he beamed down the redshirts moments before.
As for the movie, why should the transporters of Harrison and Kirk behave in like manner? Harrison has a wholly different piece of technology available to him; even if there's no fundamental difference in operating principle, we know that a transporter isn't a transporter isn't a transporter. Some have less range, some have more. Some have less penetrating capacity, some have more. Some struggle with materials others can handle with ease. And Harrison is supposed to have under-the-counter tech while Kirk has off-the-shelf.