Lol - yes but these explanations aren't all that satisfactory. Earth is moving fast, Qo'onos is moving fast. We can't beam you out of a volcano or from inside the katric ark (which in fairness might be shielded) but we luckily can beam you from one planet to a specific deserted location on another planet?
A repeated theme in this movie that seemed surprisingly consistent: it's a lot easier to beam someone DOWN than it is to beam them back again. Thinking back, this seems to be the case in the STXI as well: beaming Spock down to the surface is a pushbutton operation, but beaming him and the council back to the ship is "I have your signal. Don't move! Transport in five... four.. three... OH NOES!"
TOS is actually what set the precedent for this one. Apparently beaming people down is so easy that you don't even need to have a solid understanding of where you're beaming them to, hence Kirk accidentally beams two security officers into deep space because he never bothers to check to see whether or not the Enterprise is anywhere near the beamdown site.
Was it sheer luck that Harrison transported at the exact time that the planetary locations were aligned or can they beam through the hot centre of planets but not volcanoes?
With transwarp beaming, you can go through just about anything, including shields, warp fields, the hulls of starships, water tanks, etc. However, you have to really know what you're doing and your equations for your destination solution have to be perfect, otherwise the transwarp beam will wander off target and god only knows where you (or Admiral Archer's prized beagle) will end up.
Actually, we understand from that Enterprise episode "Daedalus" that transwarp beaming isn't technically all that challenging, all you're really doing is piggybacking a transporter signal on a subspace carrier wave. The trick is getting the payload to materialize at the proper destination; if you miss your target, you either wind up in a random place on the far end of the universe, or you fail to materialize at all and wind up floating in subspace until somebody can dig out your pattern and rematerialize you.