You want backstory? Read the comics. Read the apps. (I am probably missing something.)
In this new age of entertainment, the people involved are expecting that people have a familiarity with other products, so as to have a fuller story of what is happening. If you did what they expected, you would have read a comic series and played a video game, and two references in the movie would not have come out of the blue. They are awarding you for your loyalty to the brand with these Easter eggs.
There are surprises in the comics. According to one issue, this Federation in the alternate universe achieved what the one in the prime hadn't done by 2260. The Federation spans 8,000 light years and has 150 members.