Old timer reporting in.
No, I don't recall much outrage about TMP Enterprise over TOS Enterprise. It was widely accepted as a beautiful design, as it is. Some fans commented about certain elements, but nothing to constitute a backlash against the new design.
As mentioned above, most negative comments were about the interior re-design rather than exterior appearance. And the new uniforms and new Klingons sparked more controversy than the new Enterprise.
As an aside, drawing from my lifetime decades of fandom, the greatest fan uproar and outrage over *anything* in Star Trek was the introduction of TNG in 1987. Fans today are accustomed to new ships, new series, new crews, new actors. But at the time, Star Trek was and could only be Shatner/Nimoy/Kelley and Kirk/Spock/McCoy and the Enterprise.
New actors and new characters calling themselves Star Trek? It seems strange today, but boy TNG really had a hell of a time from the fans at the start. I don't recall anything in Star Trek generating such an uproar. Very divisive at the time, and perhaps justified during that uneven first season.