Yeah, this movie had it's share of dumb Hollywood "science"...
You are forgetting how the shuttles and ships, which have shields and can survive phasers and photon torpedoes and re-entry and the corona's of stars, etc, etc, etc...can't survive the measly heat of a *volcano*!?
Oh, but Spock's *suit* can!?
And how did the people who made "Harrison" 300 years ago have the ability to reverse death - but the Federation doctors 300 years later couldn't!?
And really, they have NO cryonics in the 23rd century at all!? Can't freeze the poor dying girl, just because, as Bones said, they don't need to freeze people because of warp drive!? (Warp drive that Zef discovered in 2069, before there were all that many deep space interstellar voyages anyway?)
Then there's the "transwarp beaming" device (which I assume works like similar to TNG's "subspace transporter"...?) that is the size of a large gym bag, but can disassemble and person and send them light-years across space and reassemble them, with now booth or anything, all that distance away. (I am starting to think that, given all the evidence in Trek history, transporter beams have the property that whatever is taken apart by them, can reassemble itself...like it starts a process that is...self-reversing...!?)
The ring/bomb got me too...but maybe it was antimatter in a container (made of some sort of smart material/smart matter/nano-tech material...?) that dissolved in water...even a microscopic amount of anti-matter would cause an explosion that big.