All they have to do is film something to show more time has passed.
Not everything needs spelled out.
The ship wasn't moving under its own power from what I saw. It simply started to fall from gravity and the shockwave of the torpedo explosion and moved from the moon to earth in minutes.
What exactly are you looking for? The movie explains how the Enterprise becomes caught in Earth's gravity, and that they're close enough to be pulled downward.
If you don't like it, blame it on Psi 2000