Why would it when you can hop in a hover car and cover the same distance in a few minutes?
That's the point - with transporter technology, you can walk distances shorter than, say, a mile, and then you can do everything else with the transporter
There's no point
in having a car (owning, it, renting it, having one materialize in front of you on demand), or a longer-range vehicle such as an aircraft, or a train, or a stagecoach. Indeed, extremely few seem to have or use any of those, suggesting they are only kept for their curiosity or recreation value. Vehicles are completely eliminated from "Earth-to-Earth" transportation, and indeed become a damn inconvenience to have around.
Principally I see this as a feature of Star Trek because production realities mean we basically never get to see vehicles on Earth...
But you aren't looking at the efficiency of these things.
A hover car (we saw them in AGT) may be more efficient than a transporter for trips of up to 50 miles, say. An air tram (like we saw Kirk arriving in at the beginning of TMP) may be more efficient for trips of 1000 miles.
You've got no justification for saying that a transporter is more energy efficient for all distances that are too far to walk when compared with all other forms of transport.
After all, if that were the case, they'd just put a bunch of transporter relays throughout space and then beam from planet to planet a la Stargate.