Im pretty sure the transporter as seen in Star Trek does not
destroy and reassemble you. If this were the case, then there would be no practical limit to the range of a transporter, assuming there where booths on both ends. I need to be on Vulcan in five minutes, but I'm still on Earth? No problem, break me down here and have a subspace signal send out to Vulcan to instruct their booth to build a new me. We see plenty of instances of data transmission over huge distances in basically instantaneous time.
However, even in booth-to-booth transporter scenarios, the show assumes a limited range of a few tens of thousands of kilometers. If the matter that is you is being disassembled and reintegrated by the same "beam" then, I think, it's still you coming out the other end. Not an incongruant copy.