How is transwarp beaming less credible than the normal beaming from one place to another without a receiving chamber. Its all made up - if Abrams et. al wants it to work, then it works.
You had Gary 7 'teleporting' across the galaxy and people didn't put up their hands in horror.
Of course its a stupid idea for Star Trek because getting stranded on a planet is one of the excitement mechanisms of the franchise. Now when people are in trouble half-way across the galaxy, then all Starfleet has to do is beam in a marine force based on Earth.
Actually why have ship at all - just beam everywhere.
They have the same problem with the replicator. If you can replicate anything, why grow crops, trade or build anything. Basically that aspect of the replicator is mostly ignored - thank goodness.
I agree that the concept of beaming back from the planet without a communicator or other localised device is silly and they could make the loss of a landing site or the loss of communicators far more significant if they were sensible. Transwarp is worse though because of the scanner issue. There is plenty of canon to indicate that Federation sensors don't have the range to scan that far.
Replicators are an issue but in TOS ships didn't have unlimited power so they didn't have full on replicators and they don't keep shields up all the time. They had protein synthesisers and probably replicator light in the form of advanced 3d printers.