I guess that link explains that. Still wonder why nobody ever questioned the sudden existence of so much weaponry and/or how that could all be moved into place so fast following the revelation of the Clone Army and the battle of Geonosis but it was an emergency and the start of a major war, so..............
Well, I think the Jedi thought that Master Sifo-Dyas had ordered everything, because he had foreseen the coming war. (Though how Sifo-Dyas ostensibly afforded it, I don't know. Maybe he had really good credit.) It was only near the end of the war that the Jedi started to get more suspicious. (Which is admittedly a little silly.)
The public was probably just told that Palpatine was a super-prepared Chancellor, and willing to accept it if the alternative was being overrun by the Confederacy.