For Data's head to be there, TNG has to be akin to what we saw. But is that possible with what we are seeing in the reboot? The history of that series includes elements from the prime universe TOS ("Relics", "Journey to Babel", "The Naked Time", etc). This TOS has been irrevocably altered.
Sorry, this is the trap of time travel. You're suggesting that Nero's incursion altered the eventual "path" of TOS (and by proxy TNG), so Data will never travel back in time. BUT, if Nero altered TOS, then Spock may never become an Ambassador, and will never work with the Romulans to save Romulus, and the black hole will never be created, and Nero will never travel back in time, and .... ERROR. ERROR. DOES NOT COMPUTE. [Smoke billowing from ears]
So, you have to go with the "timeline divergence" theory. Everything before that point is as it is -- INCLUDING Kirk "killing" Edith Keeler, Gary Seven, Riker and Geordi helping Cochrane, Data's head in 1800s San Francisco, etc...
Both Nero and Spock were already caught in the black hole and thus protected from the changes that occurred when the Narada went back first.
If you don't accept that, then First Contact too wouldn't have worked; there the Enterprise was caught in that time vortex/hole and protected from what the Borg did, while the whole universe they knew was replaced with that Borg-ified one.
City on the Edge of Forever too wouldn't have worked if Kirk and Co hadn't been protected from the changes McCoy caused.
So, my idea may be convoluted and complicated, but it makes some (Doctor Who-style of) sense and could give an explanation for the already apparent differences before the Narada destroys the Kelvin.
God, why couldn't they have made a straight reboot. This would have spared us all this convoluted shit.