Star Trek generally depicts a timeline whose past is in flux; a time-traveller alters the past but due to a technobabble explanation usually relating to chronotons (or chromatons?) the time-traveller's past and memories have some level of immunity to the changes. We see this in DS9 (eg Past Tense
) and of course in the movie First Contact
, where the 24th-century Earth becomes borgified from the past but the Enterprise is unaffected due to being caught in the time machine's backwash. So there could have been any number of changes to the past, just ones that we haven't seen. And if you apply the "time is in flux" view to the Abramsverse then the timeline's past prior to Nero's arrival would presumably have been affected too, as future-to-past journeys originating after that would be affected.
But time-travel fiction rarely makes sense or is consistent, and I guess the rule for Trek time-travel limitations is the same for the rule regarding the Enterprise's speed limitations: They're whatever the current writer needs them to be.
Anyway, if you prefer the Prime Timeline to be immutable then you can adduce as evidence the fact that Futurespock's ship uses stardates in the Abramscerse format and not the established xxxxx.xx format.