I am not so sure. Of course ideas and ideology matter and they are the single most important reason people act against their own interests.
But I also think we should take the lessons from psychoanalysis seriously, people wanna sometimes punish themselves and others. Take austerity, one minor factor that might contribute to it is politicians repenting for their former deficit bias, punishing their over-indulgence and so on.
When I studies and worked during the summers in a factory a colleague there said that he will vote right-wing because they will reduce work regulations and this will make one particular lazy co-worker work harder or make him get fired.
I didn't get the impression that the was the victim of propaganda, he just seemed to care more about punishing this one guy than caring about his narrow self-interest.
Of course this can be intertwined with ideology and perhaps this desire to punish others (which can also be beneficial, think about a state attorney who fights against organized crime and risks his life) explains why the "welfare mom" rhetoric ("Where is the fairness, we ask, for the shift-worker, leaving home in the dark hours of the early morning, who looks up at the closed blinds of their next door neighbour sleeping off a life on benefits?"
) has worked so well.