Tasha Yar came from the Turkana IV colony. Both the original Enterprise
and the Enterprise
-D visited many Federation/Earth colonies and the people who lived there. For all we know, a few billion Humans live off-world by the 24th-Century (with Earth's population perhaps the same if not slightly smaller than it is today).
Worf was born on Qo'noS, but he and his family eventually relocated to Khitomer and made that Klingon colony their home. The Enterprise
-C came to the rescue of Klingons at the Narendra III colony as well.