I totally agree that in this instance the case would take some time and land before a judge but I also think that Sona is basically right, the Sonak would most likely be removed and compensated for, not at least via superior access to whatever happens to the particles once they are extracted.
I think this "fuck property rights when a few people have resources which would benefit everybody" angle is where Sonak is coming from but alas, this is entirely hypothetical.
What the Federation does is, as Picard points out when he talks with Dougherty, an act of theft and kidnapping. We have a name for a powerful political entity taking something from a weak political entity: imperialism. If anybody can point out an historical example of a strong nation taking something from weak nation without raping it at the same time I am all ears.