I have read that if you are to imagine the future, look first to the past. The past can be instructive on the nature of humans.
In wars past, we have seen how nations have converted existing hull frames under construction into a new hull shape to meet new demands. We can see how humans created specialized products to meet new threats. For instance, the IJN Shinano
was converted from a battlecruiser to an aircraft carrier. The decision to convert her hull came after the Battle of Midway, in which the Imperial Japanese Navy lost four of their carriers. By looking into the past, I can see where JJ Abrams and his people were going in the design of the Vengeance.
They were attempting to depict a spaceborne Iowa
-class battleship analogue - a fast battleship. Fast battleships were used for combat with other ships of its type, for escorting larger ships, and for bombarding islands. (Which, for me, raised the question, what other large starships was Starfleet building? And was Starfleet planning on taking out Klingon colonies on planets from orbit?)
As I haven't seen the film, and as I haven't seen data on this new ship, I don't know what weapons, beside what has been seen in the trailer, this Vengeance
has. The description by Khan made notes to the ship's speed, length, and crew size.
The class nomenclature Dreadnought Class is not I believe the more specific nomenclature of this ship class, i.e. Federation
-class starship. I think it is used to identify the type for which this ship is assigned. For this reason, I don't believe there is a ship named Dreadnought