The physics of the universe may not change, but the understanding of them would have been changed by having introduced a ship with a hundred years plus of knowledge into the timeline.
I don't think so. The only thing they got from Nero's ship is a face full of torpedoes. They certainly didn't share their databases. It's very doubtful anything was "learned" about the technology that would have facilitated significant advances in e.g. warp propulsion.
The only possibility is if Prime Spock shared his knowledge, or possibly they downloaded data from the Jellyfish in those few instants where nuSpock was on board. But this movie takes place 6 months after ST09. I doubt that's enough time to develop a transwarp drive, even with his help.