According to the comic tie-ins, there was an Enterprise NCC-1701 immedately prior to the one seen in the last movie. According to just the films themselves, maybe not, we'll see.
It's worth noting that in Harve Bennett's almost-made movie Star Trek: The Academy Years
, there would have been a pre-TOS USS Enterprise commanded by Captain Gregory Thorpe. And of course the Enterprise
TV series already squished one more Enterpise into the past of the Trekverse.