I don't understand how Data's suggestion could even work at all. The air being forced out of the airlock is not pushing against anything; it's moving into hard vacuum, right? So it's not the same as (for example) a blown-up balloon that you release without tying, where the air escaping has other air to press against.
Seems to me that if anything, as long as the hatch through which the air is escaping is narrower than the chamber it's escaping from, the air would actually drag the Enterprise with it a little bit, no?
Maybe I'm missing some basic principle of physics.