It's the Genesis Torpedo!!
Dollars to donuts it's some kind of proto-conception of a Genesis-like device, like some kind of weapon that reduces all living matter to subatomic particles.
Carol: I used red matter in the Genesis Matrix; it was the only way to solve the problems.
Think is, with Carol being 'fleet and hanging around the torp, I'm thinking this could be something like a early Genesis-type weapon or Starfleet is taking cues from Nero and created some WMDs of their own.