Did any TREK episode ever use that overworked trope of slamming on the retros and watching the enemy fly right past?
No episode, no - but ST:NEM has Shinzon do a sudden stop and fire at the six of his Romulan counterpart in the fight at Bassen Rift.
So not really "overworking" yet, but one does wonder why this should help. Why is the six of a Romulan warbird more vulnerable than her twelve? The Romulans in the fight did not appear to use weapons that would only be capable of firing forward, nor was there dialogue to indicate that the rear shields of the warbird would be down. All we heard was that Donatra concentrated her ship's offensive power to her forward disruptors because she thought the Scimitar
was too wounded to maneuver out of the way, but such diverting of resources only took seconds and could have been undone equally fast.