Of any scene in Star Trek, this is the scene that most evokes the early 60s (and late 50s) tradition of sharp dialogue writing for TV.
Yes. There was a wonderful little golden age where serious dramas gave actors tremendously real, often harsh dialog. This era might have been inspired by the movie TWELVE ANGRY MEN.
Unfortunately for STAR TREK, Gene Roddenberry started enforcing a utopian fantasy in which the Enterprise crew must always be in harmony, because they have somehow evolved beyond the age-old facts of human nature.