If Surak's peace and serenity-through-logic was motivated by a desire to avoid war, then the psychic resonator was just another weapon that needed to be defeated through pacifism. I'm not seeing the problem with this scenario; the resonator was defeated by the new Vulcan peace movement in the same way nuclear weapons were - the motive to use them was removed.
I doubt the wholesale reformation of a society was motivated by the desire to disable just one weapon. I can believe it would be due to the desire to disable all weapons, though.
I would buy that more easily, were the symbol for peace not a part of the resonator itself. But the fact that the peace symbol was on it suggests to me that the intention was that the resonator had a special role in spreading peace, more so than all the other non-psionic weapons. The three symbols on the resonator itself summarize both the cultural dilemma in Surok's time and the resolution: war, death, and peace.