I just watched "The Wire" and at the end, Garak lends Bashir a Cardassian novel set in the future, depicting a war between the Cardassians and the Klingons. So I guess at least the Cardassians have some form of SF. Seems reasonable to suppose other groups would, too.
I imagine the Federation take on SF would be the more rarified thought-experiment variety. Not necessarily anything to do with advances in technology but more the ideas underlying them.