For what it's worth, it seems as if the first torpedo the Enterprise fired hit the bridge as it's filmed from Chang's point of view. But the explosion as it appears from space is more vague about where the torpedo hit, and the bridge section of the ship looks intact. Indeed, the bridge section of the bird of prey is actually the last
thing to blow up when the entire ship finally explodes.
The first shot by the Enterprise is fired at 4:25 in this video:
(Why does, "Back, and to the left. Back, and to the left," keep going through my mind?)