It seems that the name for Kirk's ship was picked more or less by random, perhaps mostly in honor of the WWII aircraft carrier (in the real world, the most "heroic" of the lot), at a time when Archer's voyages had already been forgotten - and it was Kirk's ship rather than Archer's that made the name Enterprise a prominent one in Starfleet.
The only thing that makes sense to me is that this was the case in the original series timeline, but that ENT
takes place in an alternate one created by First Contact
and the Temporal Cold War. Is it not possible that the NX-01 was called something else in the original history, until the Enterprise
-E went back and gave Cochrane the name, and that it wasn't quite as significant in history until the TCW factions intervened?