I don't think Bajor was ever stated to be at the edge of explored space...
Julian Bashir in "Emissary" considered Bajor "frontier" and "wilderness", but that's apparently just because the region was technologically less developed than what he was used to.
In terms of onscreen maps, we never saw one that would have shown Bajor and Earth both. But during the last two seasons, the War Room featured a wall map showing Bajor and Cardassia to the left, plus the symbol of Romulus to the far right. We might speculate that Earth should be between Bajor/Cardassia and Romulus, as other maps have shown that the Romulan Star Empire indeed lies to the "right" of Earth (that is, antispinward).
We might also accept the backstage distance between Bajor and Cardassia as a scale-establishing fact, or then consider the onscreen evidence that the two are closely neighboring systems.
Combining these, we get a relatively short distance between Bajor and Earth, in the 50-200 ly ballpark. This jibes well with the dialogue evidence: Regulus is said to be about three hundred lightyears from Bajor, and lies about 80 lightyears to the "lower right" of Earth in reality.
What we see and hear thus supports the dialogue idea that our heroes can zip between Bajor and Earth in about a week even without the benefit of superhyperfast ships. Any and all ideas of warp speeds would be compatible with this.
As for a map showing Voyager
in the Delta Quadrant, this would necessarily be of such a coarse scale that it would be of little help in establishing the distance between Earth and Bajor. The one onscreen version of such a map, reproduced e.g. in the Star Charts
booklet (pp.76-77), shows Earth and Bajor at the very same spot, as dictated by the scale of the map.