objects beamed in from the extreme cold of space
A vacuum does not have a temperature, although other factors come into play. The Apollo CSMs did a slow roll for "passive thermal control" so that one side would not get toasted from direct exposure to the Sun. What were conditions like out near the barrier when the Enterprise
took aboard the Valiant's
recorder? What about Nomad? It had just been shot at by a photon torpedo, and it apparently possessed a highly advanced power supply—what about emissions from that?
Yes, the transporter is magical in many ways. And beaming something into or out of a vacuum opens up that perennial debate about how the transporter works—is it a wormhole-like "gateway" that literally transposes matter from one place to another, or is it a disintegrator-reintegrator with a computerized buffer that can "filter" out undesirable things?
Maybe the transporter killed the crew. Someone left the cap off, and the vapors began to phase out the entire ship...