The battles on the TNG era TV shows and movies are far from submarine-esque.
What normally happens on these types of boring battles is just an exchange of fire (usually phaser shots) - then instantly cut to the bridge with some shaky camera, some smoke, and a verbal telling to the audience about some system being off line.
An evasive pattern alpha-gamma-episilon-etc-etc manuever is ordered, and cue hero vessel jink across the screen and just about evades enemy beam weapon (usually green or brown coloured)
Cue more smoke and shaky cams and verbal shouts of system coupling/conduit damage.
Rinse and repeat until help arrives or a deus ex machina plot device occurs to save the day.