Since Nu-Enterprise is supposed to be Starfleet's flagship, and latest state-of-art technology - It seems to me that whatever the other ship is, it would appear have some superior firepower to the Enterprise to cause that level of damage.
Maybe Cumberbatch commandeers a Dreadnaught class ship.
I don't think so. Based on the idea of Cumberbatch's character "detonating the fleet", I'm betting that he blows up Starbase 1, or possibly one of the ships docked at Starbase 1, and the result is a few ships get tossed into Earth's atmo. The Connie-class we're seeing isn't the only ship plummeting from the sky.
At one point in an earlier trailer we do see him in a captains chair on a bridge that doesn't seem to be a Constitution style of ship.