Janeway would have had to have taken the test, as she was a blue shirt science officer before she was promoted and later made captain.
It's possible Data may have been a blue shirt too, and had to take the test, since he was called the chief science officer, and told Riker about his academy credentials involving probability mechanics or something.
You also have to throw in terms like X.O in the mix, which seems to mean that even though you may not have a specific post like second officer, you have automatic authority on a ship or station.
Shelby fit this description.
And Worf too-once he became part of the command division, his ranking on DS9 went a lot higher. Automatic Commander of the Defiant, third after Kira but they have the same rank.