The Platonists and Pythagoreans believed that there is a higher reality knowable only through logic and mathematics, and that our world is only an imperfect "shadow" of that "true" world. While math is a very useful tool in science, math itself is not truth
Physics Has Its Principles
This is a very big topic to address in a single post, but to put it bluntly: many astronomers and particle physicists are neo Platonists and Pythagoreans whose virtual edifices are completely disconnected from reality. You've probably read that the Michelson-Morley Experiment (MMX) "proved" that there is no luminiferous (light-carrying) ether, or failed to find any
indication of one. The reality is that something
was found, but the numbers were too low for the expected ether. (And there's more
It's okay for theories to be wrong, so long as the scientific method is allowed to correct them. Unfortunately, there are sometimes people or groups of people with a vested interest in a particular model and will go to unscrupulous lengths to protect that interest. Such things did not happen only in the past, but continue to the present day.
As a starter, read Donald Scott's book THE ELECTRIC SKY
. It is a relatively short book. You will find it a refreshing break from all the fabrics, black holes, dark matter, dark energy, 'branes and other counterintuitive creations of mainstream astrophysics.
Tom Van Flandern's DARK MATTER, MISSING PLANETS AND NEW COMETS
is also a worthy read. Whatever you may think of his "Meta Model," the book will at least give you a better perspective on mainstream astrophysical theories.
I often see people quote Sagan's "extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence," typically when "extraordinary" is defined as "alternative to the currently accepted wisdom." I can't tell you what is correct and what is not—there are many intelligent people trying to work that out. However, you can't decide what is best until you check out the rest.