So, what's the penalty in these cases if you are outside the Penalty Zone (but near a mediator)?
What, on his day off?
It seems the rule is that the planet is divided into zones, at any one time all but one of these have no law enforcement. The one that does has 100% surveillance and any crime is punishable 100% by death.
There is a massive problem with it, it is bluddy stupid. It is dependent on existing purely on the blind obedience of the Edo (or they would just club the mediators to death), and if you have blind obedience then why kill anyone, the most anyone would need is a quiet reminder?
Like most early TNG however the show doesn't really tackle the issues it raises (an entire planet that exists purely as a moral problem is hardly unusual for Trek) but just sort of meanders along. It is clear that Picard will not let Wesley die, and he never seems to really consider it.