Well, a new era of X-Men stories just began after the end of AvX and the premiere of All-New X-Men
. That era that just ended began with Joss Whedon's Astonishing X-Men,
encompassed House of M
, and contained the "Messiah Complex" and "Second Coming" events, among others.
My advice, however, would to be to go even further back and read what you can find of the definitive Uncanny X-Men
run written by Chris Claremont.