FWIW, the slipstream flight to home in "Timeless" is launched around stardate 52100, while ST:INS probably takes place after the end of the war and thus of the 52000-stardated season. So yes, Kim and Chuckles would have had time to affect the outcome of the movie.
Prosthetics that are perfectly like human eyes were an option in the second season of TNG already. What LaForge apparently kept hoping for was prosthetics that would both be less clumsy and painful than the VISOR, and
capable of the same things as the VISOR. That combination evidently couldn't be provided in an aesthetically perfect package in ST:FC yet.
So we have three leading possibilities for the "future" humanlike eyes:
1) LaForge finally got human eyes installed, despite so often stating he hated those and wanted nothing to do with them, well, except perhaps for short peeks at Tasha Yar or a pretty sunrise. Perhaps Leah Brahms finally came clean and told him she considered him an okay guy otherwise but, you know, couldn't live with a freak
2) LaForge got human eyes as the result of the Fountain of Youth experience, and is stuck with them now, feeling handicapped and invalid and crying himself to sleep every night. Pious UFP doctors refuse to remove the eyes and replace them with something more useful, though. Plus, there's the Anti-Borg League to consider, ambushing and electrocuting people with artificial implants.
3) LaForge got an aesthetically improved type of VISOR installed, and Leah proposed the very next day. LaForge still carefully keeps the true nature of his eyes secret from his wife.