As far as onscreen material, there really isn't much to go on as far as the early years of the Federation. The Daedalus-class starship was in service during this time, but that's about it (and even then, there's no real official Daedalus-class design, only a conjectural one by off-screen sources).
Personally, though, I'm inclined to think that when the Federation initially adopted Starfleet, the uniforms didn't change that much from those we saw in the final episode of ENT. While NX-01 Enterprise
was decommissioned just before the Federation was founded, there's really nothing that suggests the NX-class as a whole was. It's possible in those very early days that Starfleet was comprised of different ships of Earth, Vulcan, Andorian, and Tellarite designs, but that they all sported the same Starfleet hull colors and markings until all-new designs were eventually built.