I don't think it's fair to say that a species that only lives 9 years can't evolve past primates. They would just need to develop social structures that are good at transferring knowledge. We can't assume that just because humans can't absorb a lot of knowledge in nine years that it's impossible with a specialized brain. We don't know under what conditions other species evolve.
Humans' fluid intelligence peaks at 13 yet we consider our prime to be the 20s. Why can't Ocampa fluid intelligence peak at 2? They wouldn't have the crystallized intelligence, but again, maybe their social structures compensated for that, and maybe they had shepherd races like the Caretaker to protect them.