Listening to the TOS collection I'm struck by how we were deprived of a distinctive Romulan theme when Steiner reused (either by choice or not) many of his "Balance of Terror" motifs in "Mirror, Mirror" and Courage didn't use any of it in "The Enterprise Incident."
Although, as I've pointed out before, Courage's theme for the Romulan Commander in TEI is pretty much a variation on Steiner's Romulan theme. Structurally they're almost identical -- a held note, then three descending pairs with a bit of a pause after the second one and the third pair ending on the same note as the first, then the same three pairs repeating, etc.
It wasn't until Ron Jones came up with a great Romulan motif that stuck in TNG "The Neutral Zone" (but I'm not sure how many other TNG-era composers carried it over for their Romulan shows).
None. Jones was the only one to use his Romulan theme. Indeed, the only time any TNG composer reused a motif by a different TNG composer (not counting Courage and Goldsmith) was in "Lessons," when McCarthy reused Chattaway's "Inner Light" motif. But that was source music rather than incidental.
...so we got Goldsmith's long-lived Klingon theme in TMP that lasted for over 20 years (which Ron Jones -- to his credit -- revisited at least once ("The Defector") rather than coming up with something new.
I just checked the Ron Jones set's liner notes, and there's no credit for Goldsmith's themes being used in "The Defector," or for Goldsmith's Klingon motif being used anywhere. What Jones did in "Heart of Glory" was to write his own Klingon motif that was a close pastiche of Goldsmith's, built around the same perfect fifth and some of the same percussion rhythms and so forth, and it was that motif that he used in several Klingon-related episodes. Goldsmith's was the same rising fifth three times in a row; Jones did the rising fifth with the second note held, then a falling fifth shifted up a note, then the rising fifth again.
Goldsmith got to create a Romulan theme too, and a good one, but not until Nemesis
, his last Trek score and one of the last scores of his life. So it hasn't been used since.
We know there are going to be Klingons in Star Trek Into Darkness
, so there's a good chance Michael Giacchino will come up with a Klingon motif to add to the catalog. I'm not sure whether he had a Romulan motif in the previous film, or just a Nero-specific motif.