T'Girl Starships have been able to stun entire continents of civilians (A Piece of the Action?) to no undue after effect since the time of kirk. If a Starship stuns you every time you go outside during curfew, you tend you tend to stay in doors.
It's never been said, but imagine that Star Fleet Acadamy covers most of the globe not just half of Sanfransisco... that would make evey other earthling a "Townie".
The penultimate episodes of Enterprise would have us believe, under some interpretations, that it's Prime Minister of Earth, but the Governmennt could have been reformatted after they reincorperated under the Federation banner.