I think it’s clearly a race issue. It’s the Andorian race that is dying out. It’s the Andorian race that can’t interbreed with any other races in the galaxy. The Andorian government is mad at the Federation for withholding information from the Andorians as a race of people, not as a planetary body.
And it’s the Andorian race as a whole that is being questioned by the Federation and Starfleet—regardless of planetary affiliation (or lack thereof).
You do bring up other issues, Sci, like planet of origin or Andor citizenship versus Federation citizenship. But I think those kind of issues are exactly the kind of thing that organizations like Starfleet forget when knee-jerk reactions like this take place. It’s fairly realistic—although not praiseworthy.