And the parallels are pretty strong.
"Measure of a Man", like the situation in "Fallen Gods", was about a Starfleet officer who's race was not a member of the Federation. [Because Data doesn't really have a standing race.]
Well, their particular species
isn't technically the issue -- their world of citizenship is. Since Data was "born" on a world that was considered a colony of United Earth, I would imagine that -- if the Federation were to get off its ass and clarify Data's legal status in a clear, unambiguous, and egalitarian manner -- Data would qualify as a United Earth citizen and a Federation citizen (and thus receive his representation on the Federation Council through the Federation Councillor from United Earth, and be entitled to vote for an MP in the Parliament of United Earth, etc).
Interesting question: I wonder how Starfleet is reacting to biological Andorian officers who may not have been Andorian citizens. There may be, for instance, officers born from an Andorian diaspora on Alpha Centauri, whose ancestors have been on Alpha Centauri for over a hundred years and who have no real connection to Andor. Would those Andorians also be subject to Starfleet paranoia?
Really, in this book, it would have made more sense for Riker to have helped all his Andorian crew members leave Starfleet, while maintaining their Federation citizenship. Then he might have been able to keep them aboard as "civilian observers". That would make more sense than what happen.
I agree completely.