In "Measure of a Man" Phillipa Louvois, a JAG captain and legal expert, says that Starfleet transfer orders cannot be stopped/countermanded/overridden/refused by the Starfleet officer receiving the orders.
The only way to stop them is to leave Starfleet. That is why Data was resigning his commission in the episode.
It seems clear to me that Star Trek cannon has already established that the "way out" of the transfer orders used in this book is not possible.
And the parallels are pretty strong.
"Measure of a Man", like the situation in "Fallen Gods", was about a Starfleet officer who's race was not a member of the Federation. [Because Data doesn't really have a standing race.]
Really, in this book, it would have made more sense for Riker to have helped all his Andorian crew members leave Starfleet, while maintaining their Federation citizenship. Then he might have been able to keep them aboard as "civilian observers". That would make more sense than what happen.