If we go to etymology, then Starfleet certainly will not have 'marines' as they do not operate at the sea.
How would that effect the use of "marines" today. Marines are much more likely to arrive in a combat area by way of transport aircraft, ships being the secondary method of arrival.
and OTOH Federation infantry is extremely rarely seen
It is a show that concentrates on "The Fleet." we saw the Starfleet JAG corp twice, never really saw the fighter squadrons (just the fighters themselves), a fair bit of the academy, the merchant marines once (Charlie X, imo), some time with a few other department.
But mostly the fleet.
Doesn't Israeli have the same names for their ranks, regardless if army or navy?