I don't know about the novels, but Chakotay is human and he only uses one name.
True. But isn't Chuckles supposed to be from one of those Amer-Ind Colonies near the DMZ? It would not surprise me if they decided to throw out alot of the conventions that their ancestors had adopted from Westerners and returned to something more true to their own traditions.
I think that on Earth, come what may, their is probably a homogenization of naming conventions taking place and that eventually most of the world (as with many things) will adopt a western standard of a given name and surname with the occasional middle name thrown in. This will be done for the sake of efficiency. Imagine filling out a standardized test form if you have too many names. I work for an international organization and cannot tell you what a pain it is to find someone in our database if they have too many names.
On another note, I'm surprised that no one has mentioned the Borg and the Bynars. Borg obviously have names and they make logical sense. The Bynars, however, would seem to be problematic for outsiders.