Canonically, no there are no "Starfleet Marines." The idea has been toyed with, a Marine detachment was originally considered for TOS, but that never materialized. The earliest details for Enterprise had Malcolm Reed listed as a "Starfleet Marine." However, by the time the show went into production he was a regular Starfleet officer.
Behind the scenes info for Trek V says the guys in blue shirts that were on the mission to Nimbus III were Marines, but they were never identified as such on screen.
The only definitive indication we have of ground forces onscreen are the MACOs, and even then we're not completely sure what happened to them after the Federation was formed. They likely were absorbed into Starfleet, given that their uniforms had the command star seen on the TOS uniforms, but beyond that we know nothing.
The black outfit guys on DS9 are an odditiy. While they do seem to be some sort of ground force, they use navy style ranks like the rest of Starfleet.
Colonel West, despite his army rank wears a Starfleet uniform with an Admiral's insignia. He should have a Captain's insignia, since a Colonel is the Army/Marine equivelant of a Navy Captain. Although the novels say he is an Admiral who is referred to as Colonel as a nickname.