"Polarizing the hull plating" basically means running an electric charge through the plates, which hardens their molecular... somethingorother... makes them stronger. While charged.
I learned that on this site. It's NEVER explained on the show!
Enterprise went way to far with the primitive names for the same technologies the TOS/TNG era had.
Phase cannons, polarize the hull plating, and what not. Even though they essentially did the exact same thing in the other shows, just not as well.