Re: How militarized should Starfleet be?
I don't believe Starfleet has a hand salute. In the first TNG episode/pilot, while Picard is touring the ship and is in engineering (coming off the lift), you do see a crewman come to the position of attention. And Picard once chewed out Worf for not coming to his feet fast enough in Picard's presence.
Every time the Federation Council is featured in the new series, it should be like a episode of House of Cards, with some Throne of Swords thrown in too