Is that even possible?
Granted, the computer and its sensors can distinguish between Klingon, Vulcan, and Human lifesigns, but can individual Human lifesigns be distinguished from each other? Could the computer tell if Riker leaves his combadge in Ten-Forward, if Riker's combadge is still within two meters of a Human, any Human?
Can the computer with its sensors distinguish one individual from another (assuming they are the same species).
Based on evidence, I say yes definitely on board, and maybe somewhat on the surface of an orbited planet.
Crusher has the computer give a constant read-out of Picard's vitals.
Scanning the planet, they can identify the sex and age of each colonist. Presumably other biometric distinctions could also be detected.
Based on the above, it is reasonable to assume that the computer can see your biosignature moving away from your combadge, and even if it couldn't recognize you from biometrics or DNA, it still knows you're the person formerly associated with the combadge that had your name on it, so for security purposes it would work.
EDIT - CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE
They were able to locate Wesley Crusher with internal sensors in 'The Game' even though he wasn't wearing his combadge.