Great job putting together this list as many, many valid points were made.
I really enjoyed this movie regardless and am excited at the fact that the possibilities are endless now if the ensuing installments are done right.
My biggest problem was the gaping hole in the whole Nero story. Very unrealistic that he was captured and improsoned by Klingons, only to escape to his intact ship and destroy 40+ Klingon ships???..ridiculious. The Kobayashi Maru test could have been done a little less arrogantly.
But, as far as Kirk being promoted about 10 plus years ahead of where he did in the original timeline, was somewhat believable. Thanks to Nero, several Federation ships were destroyed which accelerated Kirk's promotion due to the shorteage of viable command prospects. And young Kirk did demonstrate exceptional leadership. And remember, he is about 10 years younger, as is Spock than the characters we was TOS. So the immaturity and lack of dicsipline and seasoning is going to show.
I only hope that moving forward, these characters start maturing into the characters that I grew up with. I'm really looking forward to 'Into the Darkness' and hope Abrams doesn't drop the ball.